Investigating the Psychology of Islamophobia Among Muslims
How is Perceived Islamophobia defined?
“Islamophobia”, often defined as fear and anxiety towards Muslims and Islam, has received increasing attention in social science research. While a lot of research has investigated factors explaining Islamophobia among non-Muslims, little research has investigated how Muslims themselves perceive Islamophobia in their societies and in the media. This motivated us to conduct a series of studies, in which we showed that perceptions of Islamophobia are related to Muslims’ psychological well-being and the degree to which they identify with their religious, ethnic, and national groups.
Assessing the Psychology of Islamophobia: The Perceived Islamophobia Scale
As part of this, we have developed a psychometric scale to measure perceptions of Islamophobia. This scale has been validated among Muslims living in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The scale is available in several languages (see below). Moreover, while the scale was originally developed to assess perceptions of Islamophobia among Muslims, some ongoing work has shown that it also can be used to measure such perceptions among non-Muslims. Indeed, in a very interesting research project conducted by Miriam Schwarzenthal, Ursula Moffitt, Jana Vietze and Sauro Civitillo (read about their project on their research blog here), the scale is currently used to measure perceived Islamophobia in a large range of German schools with Muslim and non-Muslim student populations. The scale is free to be used and validated translations can be found below. The scaling format is typically a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (totally disagree) to 7 (totally agree).